A declared level of kVA (kilovolt-ampere) is agreed before a supply is installed. This is in effect the maximum demand allowable under the agreement and is charged monthly whether the level of demand is reached or not. If it is exceeded it is charged for additionally and the level may then be increased to the peak maximum demand level for the following 12 months. The level of kVA declared is also guaranteed to be available to the site by the supplier.

Billing System

A system employed by energy suppliers to charge customers for energy consumption.

CCL – Climate Change Levy

CCL is a government tax on business energy consumption to encourage a reduction in gas emissions and greater energy efficiency. Taxable commodities are:
– coal and lignite
– electricity
– petroleum and hydrocarbon gas in a liquid state
– coke, and semi-coke of coal or lignite
– natural gas as supplied by a gas utility, and
– petroleum coke.
The levy is index-linked and is reviewed on 1st April each year.

Crossed Registers

When the registers of a meter are incorrectly identified and charged by the supplier.


Refers to all details and measurements related to the energy supply.

De minimis

A small quantity of supply resulting in reduced VAT (5%). The threshold for electricity is not more than 33kWh/day over the billing period and 145kWh/day for gas. Supplies that qualify for VAT @ 5% are also exempted from CCL.

Double Charging

Occurs when the same consumption is charged by different or the same supplier.

EMR – Electricity Market Reform

A government policy to incentivise investment in secure, low-carbon electricity, improve the security of GB’s electricity supply and improve affordability for consumers.


An item of data that fails validation.

FITs – The Feed-in-Tariff scheme

An environmental programme introduced by the government to promote the use of small-scale renewable and low-carbon electricity generation technologies. If a householder, community or business has an eligible installation, FITs pays them a tariff for the electricity they generate and a tariff for the electricity they transport back to the grid.


An excessive amount erroneously charged by an energy supplier.

Penalty Charge

A charge for late payment, non-DD payment or over or under consumption (take or pay).

Reading Type

Identification of the method used to obtain a reading e.g. Actual, Customer, Deemed etc.

RO – The Renewables Obligation

One of the main support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects in the UK. It places an obligation on electricity suppliers to source an increasing proportion of the electricity they supply from renewable sources.

Stuck Gain

Is an account which the new supplier has been unable to begin billing due to a problem with obtaining certain data.

Take or Pay

A penalty charge that can be applied for over or under consumption of the quantity of gas stipulated in certain supply contracts.


A pricing structure or template used to charge for energy based on the consumption, time of day, seasonal and capacity requirements of a site


Method of checking the accuracy of data


AMR – Automatic Meter Reading

This applies to a type of meter that has the data collected by telephone line, GSM, SMS or GPRS


Indicates the amount the recorded consumption should be multiplied by. Generally meters record actual consumption and the constant is 1 – higher consuming sites may have meters with a constant of 10 (also known as x10 meters).


A meter that remains on site but is disconnected from the network by removal of the main fuse.

HH – Half-Hourly

Half-Hourly meters record electricity consumption every half hour of every day and the data is collected by telephone line, GSM, SMS or GPRS.

MD – Maximum Demand

The power consumed over a short period of time, usually 15 minutes. MD meters are installed for premises requiring in excess of a certain capacity dependent upon the regional electricity company. MD metering is currently being converted to recording half-hourly.

Meter Exchange

A meter exchange is carried out when a meter has reached a certain age or becomes faulty. Meters can also be upgraded or downgraded depending on the requirement of the customer. A program of installing AMR meters is in progress to reduce the need for manual meter readings.

MSN – Meter Serial Number

A unique identification number for an energy meter.


A separate register is required to record consumption at different times of the day. For example, an Economy 7 meter has 2 registers: day and night. Registers are also included on some meters to record capacity and waste. The button on the front of a digital meter allows the reader to cycle through the various registers.

Round the Clock

When a meter clocks round to zero from its maximum possible recording.

Sub Meter

A sub meter can be connected to a main meter in order to record the consumption of a particular area of a premises or specific equipment. A master and sub meter arrangement is usually preferred in large office blocks in order to record the consumption of each unit and communal areas.

Sub-Sub Meter

A sub meter can be connected to another sub meter, often to save cabling but also to sub divide a unit already supplied by a sub meter.


Deemed Contract

A contract which is deemed to apply when a customer has not signed a contract for a supply to their property. These contracts have a defaulted rate in the region of twice the rate that would be available for a fixed price fixed term supply contract.

DNO – Distribution Network Operators

The 14 regional companies that are responsible for operating and maintaining the networks that connect electricity consumers to the national transmission system.

Energy Supplier

A company that is licensed to buy energy from the wholesale market and sell it on.

Erroneous Transfer

Change of energy supplier to a site in error.


Small-scale generation of heat and electricity by individuals and small businesses by wind, solar, hydro, ground source, microbial and combined heat and power installations.

MOP – Meter Operator

A company responsible for the maintenance and collection of meter data.

MOP Contract

A contract with a MOP to collect the data from a particular site.


Meter Point Administration Number, a number that is a unique identifier of an electricity site.

MPRN – Meter Point Registration Number

A number that is a unique identifier of a gas site.


When an energy supplier refuses to allow a site to move to a new supplier. This can be caused by an outstanding debt on the account or by the new supplier applying for a start date that is within the contract period of the current supplier.

PES – Public Electricity Suppliers

The 14 companies created when the UK electricity market was privatised.

REC – Regional Electricity Company

The former Area Electricity Boards (AEBs) became independent regional electricity companies on 31st March 1990.

Rolled over contract

A supply contract renewal made by the supplier when the customer has not given notice of termination or agreed an alternative supply contract. This only applies to non-micro businesses.

Supply contract

A contract agreed with a supplier to supply an estimated quantity of energy to a site for a specific period of time.


Change of energy supplier to a site, usually through contractual agreement.

White Label Supplier

A company that buys energy from a licensed supplier and sells it on.